It seems that many of our ills are self-induced . The salt intake of very young infants is way too high and this can lead to problems in later life (obesity etc): This study concludes "Clear and practical education is needed on complementary feeding practice for mothers highlighting what foods to introduce and when. Manufacturers have a responsibility to reduce the sodium content of food products "
I would add that governments have a duty to ensure that they do.
"Autistic mice", it seems, also have problems with their immune system showing high levels of serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgE) andof IgG anti-brain antibodies , increased expression of brain cytokines, especially IL-33 IL-18, and IL-1β, and an increased proportion of MHC class II-expressing microglia.
This concerns the influenza virus, which mutates very often: However, a small part of the influenza's haemagglutinin protein.relatively buried on the surface, does not, and is common to many viral strains. Antibodies to this region work against many influenza strains, althogh vaccination has yet to be tested.
Although statins have been shown to reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in some studies see Alzheimer''s risk factors , simvastatin was ineffective in patients already afflicted with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, despite lowering cholesterol levels: Tweet
A recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM) found that adults who consumed high fructose corn syrup for two weeks as 25 percent of their daily calorie requirement had increased blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which have been shown to be indicators of increased risk for heart disease.
Well, not yet, but a transcription factor normally asociated with cancer ( hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)) also appears to be involved in sensing glucose in the hypothalamus , and in whole body energy balance. Increasing hypothalamic HIF activity made mice resistant to obesity despite nutritional excess
In abused mothers, gene methylation was observed, not in the mothers, but in the children screened 10-19 years after birth. Maternal stress during pregnancy, of this and many other sorts, is associated with many psychiatric disorders.
This report details how beneficial microbes could represent the future of medicine, with the potential to treat a variety of diseases in humans and animals from diarrhea and eczema to gum disease and autoimmune disorders. The microbiome: Viruses and pathogens implicated in disease
Prevention is better than cure, and a concerted attack on the many preventable risk factors that together cause Alzheimer's disease could drastically cut the incidence of this curse. This is up to general practitioners and government agencies.
While certain infections may be dangerous, others can be protective. In this study, malaria infection in mice increases the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and is able to reduce the effects of Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis , an animal model of multiple sclerosis.
While not a recommended therapy, perhaps these types of effect could be harnessed in the clinic.
These pathways include novel genes and a number of new pathways recently added by KEGG: Compounds relevant to Alzheimer's disease (cholesterol, homocysteine, vitamins, etc.) have been added, and proteins related to the herpes simplex life cycle are also colour-coded.
The gene involved, isolated from a family with a form of inherited Parkinson's disease, is VPS35 which is involved in the retrograde transport of proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and is a component of the retromer
There are many risk factors associated with dementia; Singly they might not look very impressive, but each adds an element of jeopardy and they can act together to accumulate risk. Similarly, protective agents might chip away at segments of these risk factors and a multifactorial approach to prevention -basically a healthy lifestyle avoiding the bad and favouring the good - could have a large effect.
With current technology, it is now possible to rapidly screen hundreds of thousands of molecules in bioassays in a relatively short period: The American Chemical Society has used this approach to identify small moleculed that block cholesterol synthesis in the brain, which might be useful in a number of degenerative conditions (although cholesterol is essential for brain function).
Knocking out the cannabis receptor CB1 makes brains age faster, with signs of memory loss and degeneration, Perhaps this is linked to the beneficial effects of cannabis in multiple sclerosis. The same receptor is also responsible for the effects of marijuana, so it is not yet a realistic target for drug development, but interesting nevertheless.
Classical population genetics shows that varying permutations of genes and risk factors permit or disallow the effects of causative agents, depending on circumstance. For example, genes and environment determine whether a fox kills black or white rabbits on snow or black ash covered islands. Risk promoting effects are different on each island, but obscured by meta-analysis or GWAS data from both islands, unless partitioned by different contributory factors. In Alzheimer's disease, the foxes appear to be herpes, borrelia or chlamydial infection, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, diabetes, cerebral hypoperfusion, oestrogen depletion, or vitamin A deficiency, all of which promote beta-amyloid deposition in animal models—without the aid of gene variants. All relate to risk factors and subsets of susceptibility genes, which condition their effects. All are less prevalent in convents, where nuns appear less susceptible to the ravages of ageing. Antagonism of the antimicrobial properties of beta-amyloid by Abeta autoantibodies in the ageing population, likely generated by antibodies raised to beta-amyloid/pathogen protein homologues, may play a role in this scenario. These agents are treatable by diet and drugs, vitamin supplementation, pathogen detection and elimination, and autoantibody removal, although again, the beneficial effects of individual treatments may be tempered by genes and environment.
This effect is mediated via cannabinoid receptors (cannabis gives you the munchies - or so I am told): This effect was mediated in the gut, so the development of cannabinoid antagonists that do not enter the brain is a possibility.
Dextromethorphan is primarily a glutamate (NMDA) receptor channel blocker: Glutamate can damage oligodendrocytes via receptor mediated toxicity Matute, 2011: dextromethorphan is relatively well tolerated, and it remains to be seen whether this will work in the clinic.
PKR is a kinase activated by double stranded DNA from a number of viruses including herpes simplex.This study showed that PKR activation activates the beta secretase, BACE , resulting in beta-amyloid accumulation and adds to growing evidence for a role of herpes simplex as a cause of Alzheimer's disease.
This is a nice review of Braak and Del Tredici's work suggesting that Parkinson's disease is likely to have a viral or pathogenic origin, starting in the periphery - rendered all the more likely by the knowledge that both influenza (Jang et al, 2009) and helicobacter pylori infection can kill substantia nigra neurones.
Artificial food dyes have been banned, and rightly so, in the UK. While meta-analyses may have cooled down their suspected involvement in ADHD , they do not take into account other confounding factors , such as genes, that may determine whether or not such risk factors are contributing.
Exosomes are vesicles secreted from mammalian cells: They help to get rid of intracellular rubbish (and pathogens' proteins) but also play a role in intercellular signalling and contain microRNA (sometimes from viruses) . They play an important role in the immune system, but also in many other tissues and cell types
The antidepressants involved were the serotonin uptake inhibitors (SSRI's) and mothers prescribed for a SSRI's were more than twice as likely to have a child later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.. This association was less evident for non-SSRI's
One third of all US adults (over 72 million people) are now classified as obese : The number of daily meals and snacks consumed by U.S. adults rose from 3.8 in 1977 to 4.8 in 2006. The Medcape today byline is simple "Study Finds Americans Are Eating More" . In simple terms, they eat too much .
Other recent posts suggest that saturated fat as well a toxins in sugar-free drinks are also able to kill hypothalamic neurones in appetite control centres.
These combined effects are not just about obesity: The associated medical conditions (diabetes, heart disease, atherosclosis, liver failure, Alzheimer's and probably many more) are killing people - unnecessarily, - and the problem is being exported to other countries by the expansion of western "culture".
Pathogens can have both beneficial and dangerous effects: H.Pylori causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and has also been implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkionson's disease - : About 50% of the world's population are infected with H.Pylori - (but not all develop ulcers): The authors relate the effects on asthma to the hygiene hypothesis: Bugs and dirt in small doses at an early age correctly affect the immune system and this is good - but if the immune system has not been correctly primed, infections at a later age can be dangerous.
It is known that events during pregnancy can markedly affect the development of the offspring and also the risks of developing diseases much later in life, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This study ( in mice) showed that poor diet prior to conception (even when the diet was normal in pregnancy) also had effects on the offspring , including altered insulin sensitivity. This is likely to go even further - for example famines have been associated with an increased incidence of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder at later dates.
Depakote or sodium valproate are histone deacetylase inhibitors. The reasons for their undeniable effectiveness in epilepsy or bipolar disorder are not clearly understood, but histones play a crucial role in DNA packaging and this would explain the teratogenic and longer term effects of these compounds.